Heaven Canceller (A Certain Magical Index) can heal anything, whether it is terminal illness or mortal wounds, distorting the laws of heaven, so long as the patient is still alive.
Fiona Fox (Archie Comics' Sonic the Hedgehog) is knowledgeable in medicals.
Doctor (Black Cat) is very skilled in medicals, using soft chi kung to accelerate cellular functions, healing wounds and reattaching limbs.
Retsu Unohana (Bleach) is considered the best healer in Soul Society.
Mayuri Kurotsuchi (Bleach) is very knowledgeable in medical science, having modified many people, including himself, in very innovative, yet disturbing, ways.
Szayelaporro Granz (Bleach) uses his scientific expertise to modify many of his subordinates for extra strength, or transform them into walking medicament.
Tenjirō Kirinji (Bleach) is the most powerful known healer, having taught Unohana many of her medical skills, and uses his special springs to commit the healing.
Alfred Pennyworth (DC Comics) is able to perform first aid and more complex medical procedures, thus limiting, if not altogether eliminating, the need for hospital care for the Batman Family.
Hush (DC Comics) is so talented in surgery that he collected certain faces from inmates in Arkham City and stitched them on his to look exactly like Bruce Wayne.
Dr. John Zoidberg (Futurama) was, considered by Professor Farnsworth, to be a fine physician for aliens, despite his knowledge for human physiology was absolutely atrocious.
Tsunade (Naruto) is heralded as the greatest medical ninja in history, able to perform even the most complicated surgeries and even developed the ultimate regeneration technique.
Orochimaru (Naruto) has tremendous knowledge on the human body, having studied so long to achieve immortality and drawing out human strength.
Shizune (Naruto) is Tsunade's first disciple, and has tremendous medical knowledge, even applying them in combat.
Kabuto Yakushi (Naruto) is a very powerful medical ninja, so full of surprising talent that even Tsunade believes him to surpass her prime.
Sakura Haruno (Naruto) has inherited all of Tsunade's medical skills, being her second disciple, and is considered to be her equal in prime.
Obito Uchiha (Naruto) possesses such skill in surgery that he was able to transplant one of Madara's Rinnegan into himself.
Chiyo (Naruto) was considered to be one of the best medical ninjas in Sunagakure, as she created many poisons, and can even transfer life force to bring the dead back to life and heal the injured.
Shinnō (Naruto) may have utter disregard for human life, but his immense knowledge in the human body allows him to perform flawless surgeries with only minor tools, and even enhance his own body.
Dr. Kureha (One Piece) possesses great abilities as a doctor, as shown by her great health even though she is 141 years old.
Tony Tony Chopper's (One Piece) medical skills extends to the point he created a drug to enhance his Devil Fruit.
Trafalgar D. Water Law (One Piece) is well learned in medicine since childhood, and combined with his Ope Ope no Mi, he can perform miraculous surgeries.
Caesar Clown (One Piece) has medical knowledge, as he could use his chemical expertise to apply healing and turn children into giants, as well as create artificial Devil Fruit ingredients that affect the bloodline.
Rebecca Chambers (Resident Evil) is a knowledgeable in medicals.
Asclepius (Valkyrie Crusade)
Minoru Kamiya (Yu Yu Hakusho) has medical knowledge as knowing the by striking certain pressure points/joints.